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Kamis, 02 Desember 2010

Borobudur Temple

Posted by Adrx Travel On 06.11 No comments

Cultural tourism and the history of Borobudur Temple, Borobudur Temple is located in the village of Borobudur, Borobudur District, Magelang regency, Central Java Province, about 40 km from Yogyakarta. Astronomically located at latitude and 1100.121.1311 70.361.2811 BT. Geographical environment of Borobudur Temple surrounded by Mount Merapi and Merbabu in the east, Mount Sindoro and Cleft in the north, and mountains Menoreh south, and is located between River Progo and the Elo. Borobudur temple is built upon a hill that has been modified, with a height of 265 above sea level.
Borobudur has 10 levels consisting of 6 levels of a square, circular level 3 circular and a main stupa as a peak. At every level there are several stupas. Altogether there are 72 stupas in addition to the main stupa. In every stupa there are statues of Buddha. Ten levels of Buddhist philosophy which describes the ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha in nirvana. This perfection symbolized by the main stupa at the top level. Borobudur structure when viewed from above form a mandala structure depicting Buddhist cosmology and human thinking.

On the fourth side of the temple there is the gate and stairs to the level above it like a pyramid. This illustrates the Buddhist philosophy that all life came from rocks. Stone later became the sand, then into plants, then into the insect, then become wild animals and pets, and the last to be human. This process is known as reincarnation. The last process is to be the soul and eventually into nirvana. Each stage of enlightenment in this life processes based on Buddhist philosophy is illustrated in reliefs and statues in the whole temple of Borobudur.

This huge building just a giant pile of stone blocks which have a total height of 42 meters. Each stone connected without the use of cement or adhesive. These stones are only connected by patterns and stacked. The base of Borobudur temple is about 118 m on each side. The stones which used approximately 55,000 cubic meters. All the stones are taken from the river around the Borobudur Temple. The stones are cut and then transported and connected with a pattern like lego game. All without using glue or cement.

Meanwhile, relief began to be made after the completion rocks stacked and connected. Reliefs found on the temple walls. Borobudur has different relief 2670. Relief is read clockwise. This relief illustrates a story that I read it starts and ends at the gate to the east. This shows that the main gate of Borobudur temple facing the east like most other Buddhist temples.

Borobudur was built around 800 AD or the 9th century. Borobudur was built by the followers of Mahayana Buddhism during the reign of Dynasty dynasty. This temple was built in the heyday dynasty dynasty. The founder of the Borobudur Temple, King Samaratungga originating from or dynasty dynasty dynasty. The possibility of this temple was built around the year 824 AD and was completed around the year 900 AD during the reign of Queen Pramudawardhani who is the daughter of Samaratungga. While the architects who contributed to build this temple according to stories passed down through generations named Gunadharma.
Borobudur Temple

Borobudur own words based on the first written evidence that was written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Governor General of the United Kingdom in Java, which gives the name of this temple. There is no written evidence that older who gave the name of this temple of Borobudur. Only one of the oldest document showing the existence of this temple is Nagarakretagama book, written by the MPU Prapanca in the year 1365. In the book was written that this temple was used as a place of Buddhist meditation.

Meaning of the name Borobudur "abbey in the hills", which comes from the word "coal" (temple or monastery) and "beduhur" (hills or high ground) in Sanskrit. Therefore, in accordance with the meaning of the name Borobudur, then this place since long ago used as a place of Buddhist worship.

This temple for centuries no longer used. Then, because of volcanic eruptions, most of the buildings covered Borobudur volcanic soil. In addition, the building is also covered with various trees and shrubs for centuries. Then the building of this temple began forgotten in the time Islam arrived in Indonesia around the 15th century.

In 1814 when the British occupied Indonesia, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles heard of the discovery of huge archaeological objects in the village of Magelang district Bumisegoro. Due to great interest of the history of Java, then immediately ordered Raffles HC Cornelius, a Dutch engineer, to investigate the discovery of the location was a hill covered with shrubs.

Cornelius assisted by about 200 men cut down trees and remove shrubs that covered the giant building. Because the building is already fragile and could collapse, then report to the Raffles Cornelius invention includes several images. Since the discovery, Raffles was awarded as the man who started restoration of Borobudur temple and got the attention of the world. In 1835, the entire area of the temple has been unearthed. The temple is kept restored in the Dutch colonial period.

After Indonesian independence, in 1956, the Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO to examine the damage to Borobudur. Then in 1963, out of the official Indonesian government's decision to conduct the restoration of Borobudur temple with the help of UNESCO. However, this restoration was only really started to be done on August 10, 1973. Process new refurbishment completed in 1984. Since 1991, Borobudur designated as World Heritage or World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Besides its meaning as a symbol of the universe with a vertical division philosophically include Kamadhatu, Rupadhatu, and Arupadhatu, Borobudur contains a very noble intention, the intention is mandated by the reliefs story. Borobudur temple has 1460 relief panels that made up the story in 11 rows around the temple building and decorative reliefs in the form of decorative relief panels of 1212. Relief stories Kamadhatu level (foot of the temple) represents the human world describe human behavior that are still bound by carnal lust. This can be seen on the foot wall of the original temple reliefs Karmawibhangga terpahatkan 160 panels that illustrate the law of cause and effect. Level Rupadhatu (body temple) represents the world between, describing human behavior that has begun to leave the worldly desires, yet still bound by an understanding of the real world. At this stage 1300 carved relief panels consisting of Lalitavistara, Jataka, Avadana, and Gandawyuha. Here's a brief description of these reliefs:

1. Level I

- The upper wall reliefs Lalitavistara: 120 panilRelief illustrates biography of the Buddha Gautama began at the gods in heaven Tushita grant ermohonan Bodhisattva to come down to a world transformed into a man named Buddha Gautama. Queen Maya dreamed before pregnancy dirahimnya accept the presence of a white elephant. In Lumbini Queen Maya gave birth to her son and named prince Sidhartha. At the time of birth Sidhartha was able to walk, and on seven of its first steps to grow a lotus blossom. Queen Maya died after giving birth, and Sidhartha was raised by her aunt Gautami. After mating with adult Sidhartha Yasodhara called goddess Gopa. In a journey through four encounters Sidhartha is met with an old beggar who was blind, the sick, the dead make Sidhartha became nervous, because people can grow old, suffering, sickness and death. Sidhartha finally met with a pastor, priest's face was peaceful, old age, sickness, and death is not a threat to a pastor. Therefore, according to forecasts Sidhartha will become a minister, so his father built a magnificent palace for Sidaharta. After experiencing four Sidhartha not encounter the peaceful lives in the palace, eventually secretly left the palace. Sidhartha decided embership priest with his hair cut. Clothing and wearing apparel abandoned palace slaves who have died, and unite with the poor. Before doing Samadi Sidhartha purify themselves in the river Nairanjana. Sidhartha pleased when a craftsman lawn seating of the weed present obsolete. Under the Bodhi tree at the time of full moon in the month of Vesak, Sidhartha receive true enlightenment, since it Sidhartha the Buddha in the city of Benares.

- Bottom wall reliefs Manohara and Avadana: 120 panilCerita Manohara udanakumaravada stories illustrate that is the story of a marriage with a fairy prince Sudana Manohara. Because meritorious rescue a dragon, a hunter named Halaka got a gift from parents lasso dragon. On a day Halaka see nymph bathing in a pond, with lasonya managed to ensnare one of his most beautiful angel named Manohara. Therefore Halaka not commensurate with Manohara, then Manohara dedicated to the prince Sudana, although Sudana's father did not agree. The number of obstacles can not impede marriage prince Sudana with Manohara. Awadana story tells of a reincarnation of holy men, among them the story of loyalty to the king SIPI against a weak creature. A little bird king for help in order not eaten SIPI eagle. Instead ask the king SIPI eagle birdie exchange with meat king SIPI. Having weighed the weight was a small bird with a king SIPI equal weight, then the king SIPI willing to sacrifice themselves prey to hawks. A leader must have the courage to sacrifice himself for the little people and all living things.

- Ledge below (the story of the beast) relief Jatakamala: 372 panels of the ledge above (the animal story) reliefs of Jataka: 128 This relief panels have a sense strand Jataka stories which tells the reincarnation of the Buddha before he is born as a human prince named Siddharta Gautama. This story tends to be on the incarnation of the Buddha as a noble beast with a sacrifice. Jataka stories including monkey and bull story. Naughty monkeys like to interfere with the bull, but bull said nothing. Goddard advised the bull to fight forest apes, but the bull refused to drive for fear of macaque monkeys will go from the forest and disturb the peace of other animals. Finally bowing to the bull goddess of the forest because of the attitude of bison in maintaining harmony and peace in the forest. Other Jataka story is the sacrifice of an elephant who presents himself to be eaten by hungry refugees.

2. Level II

- Wall reliefs Gandawyuha: 128 panels
- Ledge relief Jataka / Avadana: 100 panels Relief is possible to continue the life of the Buddha in the past. Some scenes are known to return, among others, on the northwest corner, the Bodhisattva incarnate as peacocks and captured, eventually giving teachings.

3. Level III

wall reliefs Gandawyuha: 88 panels
These reliefs depict history as a potential Buddha Maitreya Bodhisattva to come, is a continuation of the story at level II.


- People who diarcakan: Dhyani Buddha, the human Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.
- The number of statues: 504 pieces

Details of location of the statue:

- At this level there are 432 statues Rupadhatu, the more size on the smaller and placed in niches, with details: Core I: 104 statues Terrace II: 104 statues of Terrace III: 88 statues of Terrace IV: 72 statues of Terrace V: 64 statue

- At this level there are 72 statues Arupadhatu with the same size and placed in the stupa, with details: Terrace VI: 32 statues Terrace VII: 24 statues Terrace VIII: 16 statue

- At this level there are 432 Rupadhatu Dyani Buddha statue is placed in a niche in all corners of the direction of the wind are: lies Aksobya Dhyani Buddha statue on the East side with attitude Bhumisparsamudra hand, Dhyani Buddha statue Ratnasambhawa South side location with an attitude Waramudra hand, Dhyani Buddha Statue Amoghasidha location on the North side with an attitude Abhayamudra hand, Dhyani Buddha statue on the fence ledge Wairocana V level with attitude Witarkamudra
- Inside the stupa terraces I, II, and III, there are statues of Dhyani Buddha Vajrasattva with the attitude of the hand Dharmacakramudra
- A lion statue: 32 buahMenurut Buddhism lion is the vehicle at the time of the Buddha ascended to heaven, a symbol of strength repellent to keep the sanctity of the evil influence of Borobudur temple.


Total stupa 73 1 piece of fruit with details of the main stupa, 32 stupas on the circular terraces I, 24 stupas on the circular terrace II, and 16 stupas on the circular terrace III.
Stupa form:
- Stupa hollow stem, with no holes overlay
- Stupa on the terrace hollow circular overlay: a rhombus hole in a circular stupa terraces I and II, a rectangular hole in a circular stupa terrace III
- Meaning symbolic overlay rhombus hole: In connection with the philosophy toward the level of perfection - Meaning symbolic overlay rectangular hole: Regarding simple philosophy or "perfect? than the shape of a rhombus are still classified highway.

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